FRIDAY APRIL 18 2008
Functional MRI Activation during Speech Production in Stuttering and Nonstuttering Speakers. (Michael Blomgren and James N. Lee; The University of Utah, USA)
Abstract: The results of an event related fMRI task investigating word reading in 6 stuttering speakers and 6 nonstuttering speakers will be presented. Stimuli were 60 CVC words presented in a semi-randomized order. To reduce visually related activation and processing, the presentation of the "real" words was interspersed with 60 randomly presented indecipherable "word-like" images. Discussion will focus on specific regions of interest such as Broca's area, caudate, putamen, primary motor strip, cerebellum, and pre-motor areas.
Stuttering onset up to 3 years: a prospective community study. (Sheena Reilly, Mark Onslow, Ann Packman, Melissa Wake, Edith Bavin, Margot Prior, Obioha Ukoumunne , Patricia Eadie, Catherine Bolzonello, and Eileen Cini; Murdoch Children's Research Institute, The Royal Children's Hospital, La Trobe University, University of Melbourne, and Australian Stuttering Research Centre University of Sydney, Australia)
Abstract: This study aimed to document the onset of stuttering and determine whether specific child, family or environmental factors predicted stuttering onset in children aged up to 3 years. The participants were a community-ascertained cohort of Australian children taking part in larger study of language development. The cumulative incidence of stuttering onset was much higher than previously reported. The hypothesized risk factors for stuttering onset together explained little of the variation in stuttering onset up to 3 years of age. Early onset was not associated with language delay, social and
environmental factors, or pre-onset shyness/withdrawal. Stuttering onset appears to be associated with rapid growth in language development.
Rhythmic Features of Bulgarian Speech Produced by Stutterers, Potential Clutterers and Normal Speakers. (Goranova E. and Vezenkov S.; South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Bulgaria)
Abstract: To investigate and compare the inner rhythmic structure of the Bulgarian disfluent and fluent speech we measured the durations of stressed and unstressed syllables, duration and the types of pauses and breaks, duration and types of errors by stutterers, potential clutterers and normal speakers. Each duration of syllables, pauses, different types of errors and disfluent events was normalized and taken as a percentage of the longest duration in selected simple speech models produced both in reading and speaking. It is the preliminary results which showed that the average duration of the stressed and unstressed syllables could be taken as differential characteristic between normal and disrhythmic speech, not the average syllable duration. Another distinguishing feature could be the inner structure of the pausing and the correlation between pauses and breaks on the one hand and the articulatory temp on the other.
Using parents and teachers in screening of early stuttering. (Miglena Simonska; South-West University "Neofit Rilsky", Bulgaria)
Abstract: Although in Bulgaria kindergartens are wide spread there are not procedures and tests of early stuttering detecting. This is the reason to try using teachers and parents in early stuttering diagnostics and to develop screening procedures for filling out by parents and teachers. We approbated screening procedures with 550 parents and 70 teachers of children aged 2-6 years at kindergartens in Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria. Nearly to 2/3 of parents and teachers sent back filled forms. Results show that these procedures are applicable and they are expressed in a simple way, and both parents and teachers are responsible regarding child's speech development.
Stuttering Evidence-Based Practice - a New Paradigm in Bulgaria. (Dobrinka Georgieva; South-West University, Bulgaria)
Abstract: The new paradigm EBP is unknown for the Bulgarian logopedics. EBP is very popular as a concept in USA, Australia, Canada, England and previous EU members and is regarded as fundamental to ethical practice. As a new paradigm EBP in stuttering has emerged in health care emphasizing the importance of scientific evidence in guiding clinical decision making (Kully and Langevin, 2005). The primary goals of this paper are (i) to discuss the EBP problem in Bulgaria regarding to the stuttering therapy, (ii) to offer a procedure for its application, and (iii) to report some initial data regarding to the stuttering treatment.
Subjective Experience of Stuttering of 4 to 6 year old children- an empirical study. (Claudia Schulze, Patricia Sandrieser, Peter Schneider, and Klaus Willmes; RWTH Aachen & Katholisches Klinikum Marienhof/St.Josef Koblenz, Germany)
Abstract : The purpose of the presented study is to introduce a questionnaire for 4 to 6 years old children who stutter. The instrument allows to measure speech-related attitudes in the dimensions of a) reaction to stuttering, b)communication in daily life and c) different aspects of quality of life. A second questionnaire is designed to assess parents` ratings. Children's judgments are compared to those of their parents and correlated with an objective measurement of overt stuttering. Results indicate that the questionnaire provides a promising way to capture speech-related attitudes from the perspective of the affected child.
Academic Training that Promote Professional Growth and Clinical Preparation. (Ying-Chiao Tsao; California State University-Fullerton, California, USA)
Abstract: Stuttering is a challenging communication disorder that has puzzled speech-language professionals. It is well-known that only a handful of people who stutter seek out professional help, and the majority of speech clinicians hold reservation in working with stuttering population. Such hesitance from both the clients and the clinicians are well-documented (Kelly, et al., 1997; Reeves, 2002; Tsao, 2005; Yaruss, et al., 2003). Several class assignments/activities were therefore designed to address this issue. They are: attending stuttering group meetings, implementing fluency techniques, interviewing public opinions and generating outreach plans. This study will review and discuss the success of these class assignments.
Multi-dimensional treatment approach in Serbia: Conscious Synthesis of Development. (Jelena Tadić, Darinka Šoster, Nada Dobrota Davidović; Institute for Psychophysiological Disorders and Speech Pathology 'Prof. Dr Cvetko Brajovic' Belgrade, Serbia)
Abstract: There is no unique treatment for stuttering, and treatments often focus on a single approach to achieve fluency, for example on: fluency shaping techniques, cognitive-behavioral treatment, or medication. In the seventies under the leadership of Prof Cvetko Brajovic, the Institute for Psychophysiological Disorders and Speech Pathology in Belgrade has taken a multi-dimensional approach to stuttering therapy. Our approach unifies both fluency-shaping and cognitive-behavioral treatment and includes exercises for the development of emotional resilience and social competence. We want to present our approach to therapists from other countries, share with them our experiences, and argue strongly for a multi-dimensional treatment.
Organizing a Stuttering Study Group. (Lourdes Ramos-Heinrichs, Sandra Garzon and Helen Selle; Boston Public Schools, USA)
Abstract: Research has consistently shown that school-based speech/language pathologists feel inadequately trained to work with children who stutter. The population of students who have serious fluency disorders is estimated at 1%. Speech/language pathologists have an ethical obligation to provide appropriate services that address the multi-dimentional needs of children who stutter. Organized Stuttering Study Groups offer great opportunities to increase speech pathologists' knowledge and competency in diagnosing and treating fluency disorders. Participants will learn how to establish and maintain a Stuttering Study Group. They will be provided with suggestions for obtaining study materials, outreach activities and continuing education programs.
Observing irregular laryngeal behaviour in stutterers. (Hirsch, F., Monfrais-Pfauwadel, MC., and Sock, R.; Université Marc Bloch Strasbourg & Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou Paris, France)
Abstract: The aim of this study is three-fold: First, it would be interesting to observe if the Laryngeal Reaction Time (LRT) is longer in stutterers; Secondly, it should be possible to directly observe abnormal laryngeal movements, which could explain the longer LRT; Thirdly, it would be worthwhile verifying the Valsalva mechanism, i.e. if the larynx closes in a triple plicature manner. Results show that stutterers' LRT is longer, even during fluent speech. This can be explained partially, by abnormal gestures at onset of stutterers' productions. Laryngeal configuration during disfluencies and during an effort is quite different. This contradicts the Valsalva hypothesis.
Fallacies in assigning causes to the onset of stuttering. (Tom Weidig; Quantexperts, Luxemburg)
Abstract: The onset of stuttering is a dramatic event for everyone, from the child to the researcher on the topic. Naturally, they are looking for explanations. I want to raise the awareness of the many fallacies committed when trying to assign causes to the onset. For example, I show that 25% of all children at age 3 witness the birth of a younger sibling, which explains why many fallaciously identify this event as a possible trigger to stuttering, even text books. I also refer to more subtle statistical arguments as to why many methodological setups that look into onset of stuttering are likely flawed.
Invented Word Learning By PWS in Comparison to PWDNS. (Einat Nissan Porat, Nitza Katz, Ruth Ezrati Vinacour, and Sara Ferman; Tel Aviv
University, and Department of Rehabilitation Science- Speech, Language and Hearing, Dortmund, Israel & Germany)
Abstract: This study explored whether a language learning difficulty is characteristic of People Who Stutter (PWS) through investigating the learning of an invented word by PWS in comparison to People Who Do Not Stutter (PWDNS). Subjects were trained and tested in word recognition and production. Learning was measured using accuracy and reaction time parameters. Results show a resemblance in morpho-phonological word learning between PWS and PWDNS, as both groups showed accuracy and RT improvements as a function of practice. Nevertheless, it seems there is a different learning pattern among PWS that manifests in a relative difficulty in word recognition (comprehension) task, difficulties in consolidation and long term retention of speed, a certain lag in first learning sessions and an increased use of visual memory strategy for word learning.
SATURDAY APRIL 19 2008
Motor activation in developmental stuttering. (Wood, AG, Morgan, A, Reilly, S, Anderson V, and Reutens, D.; Monash University, Australian Centre for Child Neuropsychology Studies, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, University of Melbourne, and The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia)
Abstract: Both linguistic and/or motor deficits have been implicated as causes of stuttering. Neuroimaging offers an opportunity to disentangle the relative involvement of these domains. We aimed to determine whether differences exist in the location or magnitude of activation during oromotor and fine motor tasks in people who stutter (PWS). Our findings suggest that PWS activate similar regions to healthy controls during motor tasks. However, the greater preponderance of right sided activation in regions involved in motor tasks highlights the role of motor-based difficulties in developmental stuttering. These data raise the possibility of a general motor-based deficit in PWS.
Loci of Early Childhood Stuttering and Procedural Memory: Preliminary Findings. (Anthony Buhr, Katerina Ntourou, & Edward G. Conture; Vanderbilt University, USA)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess whether speech-language variables related to declarative and procedural memory contribute to the loci of developmental stuttering (i.e., word class and/or sentence position). Participants were 24 male preschool-age children. Loci measures were obtained from parent-child conversational samples and standardized measures of speech-language abilities. Results indicated that stuttering on function words was positively related to PPVT-EVT differences, suggesting that at least some preschoolers who stutter may possess a subtle deficit in procedural and/or an over- reliance on declarative memory.
Stuttering-like dysfluencies in stroke patients: prevalence and differential diagnosis. (Catherine Theys, Astrid van Wieringen, and Luc De Nil; University of Leuven, Belgium)
Abstract: Neurogenic stuttering is an acquired speech disorder which typically affects adults following neurological disease. In the present study we aim at collecting data on the prevalence of neurogenic stuttering and its differential diagnosis with other speech and language disorders in stroke patients. Therefore, all patients admitted to the stroke unit of the KULeuven University Hospital are screened during one year. To detect patients in whom the stuttering did not occur immediately following the stroke, additional follow-up screenings are done. If patients are observed to be dysfluent, further tests are conducted. Screening results as well as the first test results will be presented.
Assessment and Differential Diagnostics between Stuttering and Cluttering (Bulgarian practice). (Goranova E.; South-West University "Neofit Rilski", Bulgaria)
Abstract: The aim of this report is to present differential diagnostics of the fluency disorders of Bulgarian speakers - stuttering, cluttering and mixed stuttering and cluttering. The results showed that when using proper test battery, which have not been adapted in Bulgarian yet, the differential diagnostics is possible and effective. Stuttering, cluttering and mixed forms could be clearly distinguished in Bulgarian language and speech.
An evaluation of routine clinical practice: group therapy for adults who stutter. (Isabel O'Leary, Kate Williams, Sarah Marriott, and Shelagh Brumfitt; Speech and Language Therapy Service, Sheffield & Nottingham, and University of Sheffield, UK)
Abstract: This study evaluated a naturally occurring group therapy course for adults who stutter. The aims of the therapy course addressed the cognitive, affective and behavioural features of stuttering over 24 hours of therapy delivered over an intensive weekend and follow up weekly sessions. Self report measures were taken at four time points before and up to 6 months after the course. Results indicate a range of positive changes in the majority of participants.
Specificities of voice and speech of stuttering adolescents. (Nada Dobrota Davidović, Mirjana Lazić Petrović, Darinka Šoster, and Jelena Tadić; Institute for Psychophysiological Disorders and Speech Pathology 'Prof. Dr Cvetko Brajovic', and Faculty for Special Education and Rehabilitation, Belgrade, Serbia)
Abstract: Organizing adequate treatment requires the diagnosis of specificities of voice and speech of stuttering patients. We looked at speech status that determines grade, quality and type of speech disturbances, subjective evaluation of patients' anxiety in subjective unit of disturbance in 18 speech situations, and used the Laboratory for Voice Analysis (Kay Elemetrics Cop. Model 4337). Our results show specificities in the voice and speech of stuttering adolescents, upon which a thorough and adequate therapy was organized. It includes voice and speech therapy, and elements of cognitive-behavioral therapy. We plan to repeat the evaluation after 6 months for comparison and evaluation of the data.
Stammering and the use of the mobile phone. (Helen Adams and Shelagh Brumfitt; University of Sheffield, UK)
Abstract: Currently little is known of the use of the mobile phone to either text or speak by people who stammer. Using a questionnaire design, the study sought to explore their experience of using the mobile phone, identify demographic factors likely to influence its use and compare their mobile phone behaviour to a non stammering peer group. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed no significant differences between the two groups for the number of text messages sent, mobile phone calls made and attitude towards text messaging. Mobile phone call frequency was, however, significantly correlated with the respondents' severity of stammer.
Applying the Lidcombe Program in an Irish Context . (Mary O'Dwyer; HSE South, Ireland)
Abstract: Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) working in the HSE South (South West Community
Services) area were surveyed using a written questionnaire. Data was collected on various aspects of their use of the Lidcombe Program (L.P.), including; the extent of use, success, difficulties, adaptations and using another approach in conjunction with the L.P.. Results indicate a high degree of use of L.P. and satisfaction with it. They also reveal that 80% of SLTs surveyed either adapt the program or use aspects of another approach in conjunction with it.
Stuttering and developmental speech-language disorders. (Olga Dlouha; Charles University Prague, Czech Republic)
Abstract:There is relatively strong relation between speech disfluencies and disordered phonology in children with developmental speech-language disorders. Our studies analyse findings of patients from our department. The occurence of stuttering in children with developmental speech-language disorder was recorded almost 10% (group of 300 children); from higher group of 865 stutterers, who undertook special treatment at our department, had 11% delayed speech-language development. Another study, about 4% occurence of stuttering in children with very low birth weight (out of group of 600, with mentioned risk). These all findings suggest that impaired speech-language development can be a risk factor for the origin of stuttering.
Investigation of the attitude related to speech communication in stutterers. (Bijan shafiei; Medical university of Isfahan, Iran)
Abstract: Attitude is very important in speech communication. Stutterers usually have a weakness in this area caused by their experiences. Encouraged attitude facilitate speech communication. In this research we explore the level of attitude related to speech communication by administering the Attitude Adjustment Scale (AAS) to 35 PWS and 35 PWNS. The data were analyzed using Kai-square and T- test. The results showed that there was significant difference between PWS and PWNS. The findings of this research showed that PWS are lower than PWNS in this area. This leads to low self-confidence in speech communication and finally to some stresses and fears during speech communication.
Hospitalisation and stuttering in childhood - a link? (Suzana Jelcic Jaksic, Dave Rowley, and Mirjana Lasan; Children's Hospital & Logopedski Centar, Zagreb, and De Montfort University Leicester, Croatia & UK)
Abstract: The records of 476 PWS assessed between 1987 and 2007 at the Department of Mental Health Services in Zagreb were examined to determine how many of these had been hospitalised. 87 PWS or nearly one in five had been hospitalised prior to the onset of stuttering. Of these 20 had developed a stutter within three months of being hospitalised, compared to only 21 between 4 and 12 months of being hospitalised, (p=0.0031) leading to the conclusion that there is a link between being hospitalised and developing a stutter worthy of further investigation.